Independence in 3 steps 独立三步骤


 Malaysiakini - Perhaps it's time to opt for a referendum on Sarawak

Since 1990, 34 new countries have been born. Sarawak is a sovereign entity, has its own government, and its administration and democracy system has been functioning effectively for over half a century. Racial harmony is exemplary as well. Hence, declaring independence is well within reach. It all depends on the determination of the Sarawak government and her people. So long as her people, in pursuing a happy future, use their vote wisely, the creation of a new nation in three years is possible.


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In Quest of Sarawak independence



Independence in 3 steps
( Yao Yao 24/11/2019)

How do we become an independent nation?

According to international practice, the following measures and conditions are necessary to achieving independence:


The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States is a treaty signed in 1933, which became operative on 26 December 1934 and registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on 8 January 1936. The convention sets out the definition, rights and duties of statehood. Most well-known is Article 1, which sets out the four criteria of statehood that have been recognised by international organisations as an accurate statement of customary international law.

“The nation or state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications:

1) a permanent population;
2) a defined territory;
3) government; and
4) capacity to enter into relations with other states.”

Using the above criteria to assess Sarawak’s qualifications for statehood:

1) A permanent population
In 2018 Sarawak’s population was recorded as 2,780,000. Currently Sarawak’s major ethnic groups consist of Dayak, Chinese, Malay and over 40 other different sub-ethnic groups. Inter racial marriage is practiced among Chinese and Dayak.

The Dayak people are native to Borneo, migrating to Sarawak from the central Kalimantan region. In the 12th century, this region was home to the nation of Nansarunai, founded by the Ma’anyan Dayaks. Currently the Dayak people make up 30.3% of Sarawak’s population.

The Chinese first came to Sarawak in the 6th century as traders. Another wave of Chinese arrived with the economy’s development in the 18th century. Over the 200 years since, the Chinese population has grown over generations contributing significantly to the economy and commerce. Currently Chinese make up 24.2% of Sarawak’s population.

Sarawak’s Malay ancestors originated from Brunei in the 15th century. They developed Sarawak’s unique version of the Malay language, and currently make up 24.4% of the population of Sarawak.

Sarawakian passports are uniquely coded and as such, only suitable for use by Sarawak citizens. Likewise, IDs for Sarawak citizens are numbered differently from peninsular Malaysia. This was changed by the federal government with the intention to obscure Sarawak as a sovereign political entity.

Out of the 195 countries in the world, Sarawak would be ranked in between Lithuania (139th) and the Republic of Gambia (140th). In terms of population size it would be 3299 times the size of Vatican City, which is a country with only 799 citizens. Therefore Sarawak is more than qualified to meet "a permanent population" qualification.

2)  A defined territory
Sarawak is located on the north-western part of Borneo Island. Sabah, Brunei and Kalimantan make up the rest of Borneo. Sarawak’s land area was defined in 1905 as 124,450 square kilometers. Under international law, a sovereign country, country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralised government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. Sarawak is therefore a sovereign country.

Of the 195 countries in the world, Sarawak’s territory would be ranked between Nicaragua (96th) and North Korea (97th) in land size. Sarawak has never had any disputes over territory with her neighbours.

3) Government
Sarawak has had a government system since 1841, and currency in circulation since 1858 (the Sarawak Dollar). Sarawak’s legislative assembly was established on 8 September 1867, and is one of the world’s oldest functioning legislative bodies. Sarawak currently has its own elected government, constitution, legislation and Executive Council. Sarawak commenced its popular election in 1969, forming a government through a transparent and democratic process. Sarawak has hosted 11 state elections since and this has historically been a peaceful and smooth process. The State Assembly administers a number of departments, including the Ministries of Agriculture, International Trade, Tourism, Culture, Welfare, etc. This has lasted for over half a century.

4) Capacity to enter into relations with other nations
According to declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can unilaterally declare independence. However, unrecognised states will often find it difficult to establish diplomatic relations with other sovereign states. But, unilaterally declaring independence is not proscribed by the international law. Therefore, recognition by other states is a political issue and not a legal one.

Basically, as long as the sovereignty was not gained by military force, and the state is not in violation of international law, it will usually be recognised by the international communities.

A newly independent nation will need to gain recognition from the international community. In particular, recognition from one of the permanent members of the United Nations (China, Russia, USA, UK and France) will likely guarantee the same recognition from the rest of the world.

Therefore if Sarawak wants to become independent, it must initiate talks with powers such as the UK and China, and inform the ASEAN countries that Sarawak intends to join the international community as an independent member, in order to continue to promote and defend Sarawak’s human rights and rainforests which are the lungs of the planet Earth. By fulfilling the obligations of a recognised nation to develop peacefully, Sarawak would aim to gain support from other countries.


Joining the UN requires submission of an application to the UN Secretary, and declaration of compliance with the United Nations Charter. The application will be reviewed by the Security Council, and must receive support from a minimum of 9 members of the Security Council in order to be accepted. All five permanent members of the UN Security Council must also accept the application (an example is Taiwan, who cannot enter the UN due to China’s veto).

Looking at the criteria set out above, Sarawak has already fulfilled 80% of the requirements. Out of the remaining 20%,  15% will rely on the determination of Sarawak’s citizens. Such determination depends on their understanding of the process of gaining independence, their confidence in their state after gaining sovereignty, and how not to be misled by the propaganda from the Malay Federation and the current Sarawak government. Support from the international community must also be built.

The other 5% will depend on international support. This must be pioneered by a party that fights for Sarawak’s independence (currently Parti Bumi Kenyalang ). After being elected into office as the biggest party in the state assembly, the party will need to send representatives to the UK, China, Singapore, Brunei and others to seek support.

International support can be gained based on moral grounds, or a nation’s self-interests, or both. Sarawak was once a British Colony, and was forced by the British to form Malaysia with Malaya, leading to Sarawak’s exploitation under Malaya for over half a century. The British would be duty-bound to support Sarawak based on moral grounds.

Lee Kuan Yew, the founder of Singapore, was also a culprit in advocating for the formation of Malaysia. Singapore, too, would be obliged to support Sarawak independence on moral grounds. Support from Singapore could also be gained by negotiating on the use of Sarawak’s land for food production (currently pork for example), or military training bases (as done in Taiwan and Hainan Island) which are strategically beneficial to Singapore.

China may provide moral support as well as one based on self-interest. The Chinese Communist Party had once supported the Sarawak Communist Party. This led to the British and the US forcing Sarawak to form Malaysia in order to fight communism, for fear of the domino effect engineered by communist China. If not because of the above reasons, Sarawak would not have fallen into the trap of Malaya. Therefore, China is also obliged to support Sarawak independence.

On the other hand, the US is striving to block China from the South China Sea. Allowing Chinese warships to ply Sarawak waters will help China break the First Island Chain. In exchange, we could seek Chinese aid in exploring our oil fields which requires financial and technical strengths Sarawak is lacking. PetroChina Company Limited is the second largest petrol company in the world. Sarawak could aim to enter into a 80-20 joint venture with them in oil and gas industries which would be a win-win situation.

With its abundant oil reserves, Sarawak could aim to seek investment and co-operation with oil companies like Royal Dutch Shell and US Esso. Through investments, the big companies will in turn protect their own interests and use their influence to henceforth ensure the stability of the region.

Since 1990, 34 new countries have been born. Sarawak is a sovereign entity, has its own government, and its administration and democracy system has been functioning effectively for over half a century. Racial harmony is exemplary as well. Hence, declaring independence is well within reach. It all depends on the determination of the Sarawak government and her people. So long as her people, in pursuing a happy future, use their vote wisely, the creation of a new nation in three years is possible.



於:2019/11/24 )


獨 立 一 二 三


如何成為一個獨立國家? 依國際慣例,得滿足4個條件和完成三個步驟:


想成立一個新的國家,當然得登高一呼, 昭告天下,“我們獨立了!。
但是首先得符 合4個條件,這4個條件寫在以下的公約 裡,那就是1933年制定的蒙特維多國權 利義務公約(Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States) •
《蒙特維多公約》於1934年12月26日起 開始生效,並於1936年1月8日登記於 《國際聯盟條約彙編(League of Nations Treaty Series)》。
《蒙特維多公約》定義了「國家」及國家 的權利和義務。該公約最為人所熟知的是 其第一條,該條款內容確立了國際組織所 承認之國家的四項標準,同時也成為國際習慣法的準則。

作為一個國際法所承認之國家應具備 以下資格:


(1)常住人口(a permanent population):

2018年砂拉越的人口統計數目 是 2,780,000人(兩百七十八萬人)。目前 居住在這土地上土生土長的砂拉越人包括 達雅人、華人、馬來人以及超過40種不同 的少數民族,其中更有不少華人和達雅人 異族通婚的族群。
達雅人是砂拉越的最早的住民,發源於加 里曼丹中部,從內陸逐步往外遷移。曾在 12世紀前由Ma'anyan Dayaks建立一個獨 立的國度 Nansarunajo,佔目前砂拉越的 總人口之30.3%。

公元6世紀時(中國南北朝)華人就來到砂 拉越進行貿易。18世紀隨著經濟發展,華 人從中國南方移民至此。兩百多年來世代 繁衍,生於斯、長於斯、葬於斯,在這裡 落地生根。砂拉越發展史中,華人的奮鬥 功不可沒。華人佔目前砂拉越的總人口之 24.2%。

砂拉越多數的馬來人祖先,約於15世紀時 自汶萊遷入。他們發展出砂拉越馬來語, 一種只在砂拉越及婆羅洲島上通用的馬來 語(Sarawak Malay)。馬來人佔目前砂拉 越的總人口之24.4%。

此外,砂拉越人的護照為特別編碼,只適 用於砂拉越公民。在這之前,砂拉越公民 的身份證為砂拉越專屬編號,有別於馬來 半島公民,後因馬來聯邦從中作梗,才取 消此編號形式,意圖削弱砂拉越的主權, 向外界掩蓋砂拉越為主權政治體實的事 實。

在全球195個國家中,砂拉越人口數排名 在139名的立陶宛(Lithuania)和140名的岗比亞共和國(Republic of The Gambia)之 間。同時比人口只有799人的國家-教廷 (Holy see)還高出3299倍。因此就"常住人口“此一資格而言,砂拉越絕對夠格。

(2) 界定的領土 (a defined territory):

砂拉越位於婆羅洲島(Borneo Island)的西 北,與沙巴、汶萊和加里曼丹為鄰。陸地 總面積124,450平方公里。

砂拉越目前的 領土面積,在1905年即己確定。在國際 法中,一個主權國家或主權邦,指的是一 個擁有一定地理疆域的以中央政府為代表 的政治實體。 (In international law, a sovereign country, country, or simply state, is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.)。

論土地面積,在全球195個國家中,砂拉 越排名於96名的尼加拉瓜(Nicaragua)和 97名的北韓之間。同時,砂拉越和鄰國沒 有領土的糾紛和爭議,這對將來爭取加入 聯合國更有加分作用。

(3)  政府(government):

砂拉越在1841年即有政府行政系統,並 曾發行貨幣,在1858年開始流通,稱為 砂拉越幣(Sarawak Dollar)。砂拉越的立 法議會成立於1867年9月8日,是全球最 古老且持續運作的立法機構之一。砂拉越 目前有自己的民選政府,憲法、立法和行 政議會。砂拉越於1963年開始實施民選政府,人民透过民主選舉程序,票選出屬 意的政黨代表,組成政府,行使政府的權利和義務。砂拉越迄今共舉辦了11 届民 主選舉,過程和平順利。

砂拉越的行政議 會下轄多個政府部門,如:農業部、國貿部、旅遊文化部、工業部、福利部等,成 熟運作超過了半世紀。

to enter into relations with the other states)

根據主權國家宣告理論(Declarative Theory),一個主權實體可以自我宣告獨立,然而如果沒有得到國際上其他國家承 認的話,就很難與其他國家建立外交關 係。

因此,能否獲得其他主權國家的承 認,在這條公約裡視為必要的條件。

然而,國際法對一個主權邦國宣布獨立並 未禁止,同時認為能否得到其他國家的承 認乃是屬於政治議題。

基本上,只要是這個新興國家的領土不是 透過軍事手段奪取,或違反國際法,普遍都會被國際社會接受和承認的。

(二) 取得承認(Gain Recognition)

獲得其他國家的承認,是一個新獨立國家 被國際社會認可為合法國家的其中一個要 件。特別是如果能得到聯合國五大常任理 事國之一承認的話,那通常表示你將很快 被世界其他各國承認。這五大常任理事國 為中國、俄羅斯、美國、英國及法國。

因此,砂拉越要獨立之前,應該先與大國 如英國、中國會談,再知會東協各國,表示砂拉越將以獨立身份加入國際社會,提 昇砂拉越的人權地位,保護地球之肺----熱 帶雨林,同時善盡國際一份子的義務,共 同維護區域和平及繁榮發展等等,希望能 得到各國支持。

( 三) 加入聯合國(Join the United Nation)

申請加入聯合國,需將申請書提交給聯合國 秘書長,同時宣示遵守聯合國憲章(United Nations charter)。

申請書將經過安全理 事會(Security Council)的審核,在安理會 15個會員中必需得到最少9個會員的同意,才能加入聯合國。

但只要五大常任理 事國其中之一投反對票,即便14個會員投 同意票,也一樣被否決。台灣之所以永遠 進不了聯合國,就是因為中國的那一票否 決權。

縱觀上述條件,事實上砂拉越己具備八成 獨立的資格。缺的兩成,其中一成五是民 眾的決心,而民眾的決心取決於對獨立問 題的認識,對國家獨立後的信心、以及如 何避免被現任砂拉越政府和馬來聯邦的蒙蔽和 誤導。另外零點五成是國際社會的支持, 這一部分必需在爭取砂拉越獨立的政黨 (目前為 肯雅蘭全民黨 )當選成為砂拉越議會最大黨 後,派員出訪英國、中國、新加坡、汶萊 等國家尋求彼等的支持。

通常支持的出發點、可分為國際道義上的 支持和國家自身利益上的支持

英國應屬於道義上的支持,砂拉越曾是其英國人在海 外創立的國家,也曾是英國殖民地,砂拉 越被強迫推出去和馬來亞合組馬來西亞, 以致被馬來亞剝削了半世紀以上,英國難辭其咎。

新加坡國父李光耀,當年也是鼓吹砂拉越加 入馬來西亞的元凶之一,因此新加坡在道 義上應支持準備脫離馬來亞剝削,重獲自由身的砂拉越。另外,在利益上,砂拉越 廣大的土地可作為新加坡的糧食生產地 (如目前肉豬供應),軍事訓練基地(如之前 的海南島和台灣),對新加坡而言,有戰 略上的利益。

中國也可以是两者 : 道義和利益。如果 不是當年中共支持砂共,英美擔心東南亞 被赤化,於是強把沙巴,砂拉越和馬來亞綁成一 塊,以利於反共,砂拉越也不會落入馬來 西亞圈套。因此,基於支持受欺壓的一 方,現在中國應秉持其創黨時的精神,支 持砂拉越脫離馬來亞魔掌。

另外,就中國 國防戰略利益而言,美國勢力在南中國海上極欲防堵中國,砂拉越獨立後、在領海 上可與中國合作,如允許中國軍艦通過砂 拉越領海。如此一來,中國可避免第一島 鏈被封鎖。

砂拉越的交換條件為 : 請求中國協助開發領海內油田,因為開發油田需 要龐大財力物力和技術,砂拉越力有未逮。

中國石油天然氣股份有限公司 (PetroChina Company Limited)為全球市 值第二的石油公司,砂拉越可與中方合作,將來石油及天然氣所得,可採二八分帳,中二砂八,雙方互惠。

由於砂拉越擁有石油及天然氣的主權,可 以此作為籌碼和各國的石油公司合作,如 荷蘭的Shell (Royal Dutch Shell 和美國的 ESSO。把大國拉攏過來,投資砂拉越,在另 一層面上,就是為砂拉越裝上保護盾。當 各國龐大的資金、昂貴的設備和利益收入 與砂拉越共構在一起時,為了保護其自身 財產,大國也會極力確保此區域的和平穩 定。由此,砂拉越同時也得到了保障。

自1990年以來,全球共有34個新國家誕生。砂拉越擁有獨立的領土主權和政府, 而且政府各行政系統、民主體制已成熟穩 健的運作了半個世紀;此外,各族和平相 處,己可成為世界其他國家的楷模典範。因此,宣布獨立並非難事,一切全看砂拉越政府及人民的決心和信心只要人民決 心追求幸福和更美好的未來,大家把握好手中的那一張選票,一個新的國家正式誕 生,是可能在三年內實現的。


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